Types of Elections

Types of Elections

Ghananians vote and elect on a national level a president and a legislature every four years since 1992. Each
electoral system determines the rules on how parties and candidates are elected.

  • Presidential Elections
  • Parliamentary Elections
  • District Assembly Elections
  • Unit Committee Elections
  • Referendum
  • MMCE’s Elections

A presidential election is the election of any head of state whose official title is President. There are three systems of
presidential elections:
• First Past The Post (FPTP)
• Two-Round System (TRS)
• Preferential Voting
When most people think of presidential elections, they often think of awarding the presidency to the candidate who wins the
most votes. This winner-takes-all approach is called First-Past-the-Post (FPTP). As of 2019, only 19 countries, including Ghana,
implements this voting method.

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Also called a general election, a parliamentary election is when all or most members of a given constituency or political party are chosen. These are usually held at regular intervals and for a nation’s primary legislative body.

Similar to other democratic and republican systems of government, Ghana holds its parliamentary elections on the same day where both the president, and either a political party or all members of the national legislature are elected simultaneously.

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A district assembly election happens when only voters or constituents who reside within an electoral district vote in an election held in there. According to Ghana’s District Assembly Elections Act of 1994, District Assembly elections are held every four years and shall be held at least six months apart from parliamentary elections.

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Unit committees are the lowest level of structure in Ghana’s local government. Around 16,000 unit committees nationwide both elect and appoint ten members who are responsible for completing tasks delegated by the district assemblies.

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What if a law is passed and you don’t like it? A citizen or government body can petition for a referendum. It is an election device where voters can either reject or accept a law or statute passed by an administration by voting on the issue.

Referendums allow people to express their opinion and vote for or against the proposed amendment.

Constitutional referendums are the most popular type of referendums. In many countries, a national constitution can only be amended if the proposed amendment has been approved by the citizens in a referendum.

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Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs) elections aim to appoint the chief representatives in charge of managing, administering, and executing policies affecting the people within their district.

The appointed officials will preside over their District Security Councils.

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